Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2023;12(3):191-197. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2023.01039)
Analysis of microsatellite instability (MSI) in pediatric gonadal and extra-gonadal germ cell tumors
Montella M, Errico ME, Ronchi A, Zannini G, Donofrio V, Savarese G, Sirica R, Esposito F, De Martino M, Papparella A, Franco R, Chieffi P, Zito Marino F
Gonadal and extragonadal pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare neoplasms with different clinical behavior. Although surgery and cisplatin-based chemotherapy are resolutive in most cases, some patients do not respond to chemotherapy and have a worse outcome. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was correlated to resistance to chemotherapy and sensitivity to immunotherapy in different neoplasms. A series of 21 pediatric GCTs were tested by immuno-histochemistry and PCR to evaluate MSI status. Next generation sequencing was applied to further evaluate cases with discordant results between immunohistochemistry and PCR. Twenty-one cases of pediatric GCT were included in the series. The mean age ranged between 1 and 10 years. Nine cases were gonadal GCTs and the remaining 12 were extra-gonadal GCTs. By immunohistochemistry, one case showed a deficit of Mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. This case was a 1-year-old children affected by gonadal yolk sac tumor. However, all cases resulted microsatellite stable (MSS) by PCR and NGS. MSI was not detected in our series of pediatric GCTs, as well as the data present in literature about adult patients with GCTs. Molecular techniques could have a role to confirm the MSI status in case of dMMR by immunohistochemistry.