Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2023;12(1):67-70. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2022.01125)
Dent disease manifesting as nephrotic syndrome
Chen QP, Li YZ, Wu XC
Dent disease is an X-linked recessive renal tubular disorder, which is mainly caused by mutations of the CLCN5 gene and OCRL gene. It is characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis, and progressive renal failure. Nephrotic syndrome is a glomerular disorder characterized by massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we report two cases of Dent disease manifesting as nephrotic syndrome. Two patients were initially diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome due to edema, nephrotic range proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia, and responded to prednisone and tacrolimus therapy. Genetic testing revealed mutations in the OCRL and CLCN5 genes. They were eventually diagnosed with Dent disease. Nephrotic syndrome is a rare and insidious phenotype of Dent disease, and its pathogenesis is not fully understood. Patients with nephrotic syndrome are recommended to routinely undergo urinary protein classification and urinary calcium testing, especially those with frequently recurrent nephrotic syndrome and poor response to steroid and immunosuppressive therapy. To date, there is no effective drug treatment for Dent disease. About 30% to 80% of patients progress to end-stage renal disease at the age of 30-50.