Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2023;12(1):5-12. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2022.01127)
Hyperphagia in Prader-Willi syndrome with obesity: From development to pharmacological treatment
Rahman QFA, Jufri NF, Hamid A
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder due to lack of genes expression inherited from the paternal chromosome 15q11-q13 region usually from paternal deletions, maternal uniparental disomy 15 or imprinting defect. There are two different nutritional stages reported in an individual with PWS; first stage during infancy marked by feeding and growth difficulties and second stage where hyperphagia starts and leads to development of obesity. However, the exact mechanism of hyperphagia development, from having difficulties in feeding during early years to insatiable appetite after they grow is still unknown and is the focused in this review. The keywords used for literature search such as "Prader-Willi syndrome", "hyperphagia", "obesity", and "treatment" were used to create the search strings by using synonyms in order to retrieve the relevant records from PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct. The possible mechanism of hyperphagia can be classed into hormonal abnormalities such as increase in ghrelin and leptin from infancy to adulthood. Low level of hormones was observed in the thyroid, insulin and peptide YY at certain ages. Neuronal abnormalities contributed by Orexin A and brain structure alteration was documented at 4-30 years old. Treatment in the form of drugs such as livoletide, topiramate, and diazoxide could potentially alleviate these abnormalities and make hyperphagia less prominent in PWS. The approaches are important to regulate the hormonal changes and neuronal involvement as potentially controlling hyperphagia and obesity.