Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2022;11(1):43-45. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2022.01019)
Diffuse astrocytoma with mosaic IDH1-R132H-mutant immunophenotype and low subclonal allele frequency
Morgan KM, Danish S, Xiong Z
Molecular alterations found in gliomas are now considered entity-defining features. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification system currently classifies the vast majority of gliomas utilizing an integrated genotype-phenotype approach. We present a case of diffuse astrocytoma with a mosaic isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1-R132H-mutant immunophenotype and low subclonal allele frequency. A 35-year-old patient with a history of IDH1-R132H mutated diffuse astrocytoma in 20014 presented to the hospital again in 2019. MRI examination showed a non-enhancing abnormal signal in the periphery of her previous surgical cavity. Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was hypercellular and without high grade histopathological features. The neoplastic cells were immunohistologically positive for GFAP, Olig2, and ATRX. However, only some scattered tumor cells were positive for IDH1-R132H. Cytogenetic studies revealed a lack of chromosomal 1p/19q codeletion. Further next-generation sequencing (NGS) demonstrated a low-level IDH1-R132H mutation and allele frequency. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of diffuse astrocytoma with mosaic IDH1- R132H-mutant immunophenotype and low subclonal allele frequency (WHO grade II) was generated. This case indicates that gliomas may have heterogeneous molecular profile and the intra-tumoral molecular heterogeneity highlights the need to further characterize the molecular profile for glioma classification and clinical management.