Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2021;10(2):114-121. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2020.03143)
Clinical manifestation and genetic analysis of familial rare disease genodermatosis xeroderma pigmentosum
Yuniati R, Sihombing NRB, Nauphar D, Tiawarman B, Kartikasari DS, Dewi M, Faradz SMH
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by hypersensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet radiation and other carcinogenic agents. This ailment is characterized by increased photosensitivity, skin xerosis, early skin aging, actinic keratosis, erythematous lesions, and hyperpigmentation macules. In this serial case report, we presented four cases with XP from two families in Indonesia. Both families were referred from rural referral health centers, and each family has two affected siblings. They had freckle-like pigmentation on the face, trunk, and extremities, which progressed since childhood. One patient of family 2 died because of an infectious disease. Histopathological examination using cytokeratine (CK), CD10, and Ber-EP4 staining from available tissue biopsy of one affected case of family 1 identified basal cell carcinoma (BCC) on the cheek and melanoma on the right eye. Mutation analysis found ERCC2, c2047C>T and XPC, c1941T>A in the first and second families, respectively. We suppose that this is the first case report of XP in Indonesia that incorporates clinical examination, genetic analysis, and extensive histopathological examination, including immunohistochemistry staining, and a novel pathogenic variant of XPC was found in the second family.