Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2020;9(3):145-150. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2020.01026)
array-CGH revealed gain of Yp11.2 in 49,XXXXY and gain of Xp22.33 in 48,XXYY karyotypes of two rare klinefelter variants
Dhangar S, Ghatanatti J, Vundinti BR
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) variants often share common features with classical syndrome but some of these variants present with a distinct phenotype. The incidence of sex chromosome tetrasomy and pentasomy are very less and generally diagnosed after prepubertal age. The early diagnosis of complex and unclassified syndromes and it's correlation with genotype is necessary for personalized treatment as well as genetic counselling of the affected families. We describe clinical presentation, and genetic diagnosis of two cases of variant KS. Our first case, a 4 year old male child presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs), delayed milestones and dysmorphic features while case 2, a-21 years old male who had history of seizures and delayed puberty came to our lab for genetic diagnosis. The chromosomal analysis of case 1 and 2 showed 49,XXXXY and 48,XXYY karyotype respectively. The karyotype results were confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and array-CGH analysis. The FISH results were found to be consistent with karyotype but the array-CGH results showed the extra gain of region Yp11.2 in case 1 while the extra gain of region Xp22.33 in case 2. The cases were confirmed as variant KS on the basis of additional sex chromosomes and clinical presentation of deteriorated brain development. The present study suggests that the high doses of sex chromosome linked genes including pseudoautosomal region (PAR) caused the abnormal brain development. The combination of molecular techniques should be utilized for the diagnosis of such complex cases to understand the genotype-phenotype correlation and appropriate genetic counseling.