Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2020;9(3):137-140. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2020.03064)
The challenge of managing comorbidities: a case report of primary Sjogren's syndrome in a patient with acute intermittent porphyria
Teng Q, Ma LY, Ma YL, Zhang YR, Kang NL, Hu YX, Zhang SY
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare inherited metabolic disease associated with heme metabolism. Primary Sjogren's syndrome (PSS) is a common autoimmune disease. The combined presence of AIP and PSS complicates treatment. A rare case of concomitant AIP and PSS is reported in this paper. A 30-year-old woman with AIP had recurrent acute abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, constipation, persistent chest, back, and waist pain, red urine, positivity for porphobilinogen (PBG) in urine and a pathogenic mutation of the HMBS gene. Two and a half years after she was diagnosed with AIP, she was diagnosed with PSS based on dryness of the eyes and mouth, the elevation of immunoglobulins (IgG and IgA) and positive results on an anti-SS-A antibody test, an anti-SS-B antibody test, Schirmer's test and a labial gland biopsy. A mutation in the HMBS gene was detected in the patient and her cousin, but the patient had more severe AIP and more severe symptoms (such as epilepsy and a limp), which may be related to the co-morbidity of PSS. According to her PSS activity score, the patient had an ESSDAI score of 9 and required systemic treatment. However, potential medications were limited by AIP, so mycophenolate mofetil was eventually added to delay the progression of the primary disease.