Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2019;8(4):245-251. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2019.01087)
Coronary artery disease and mesenteric artery stenosis - Two sides of the same coin? - Long term prospective analysis.
Krishnamurthy G, Menon A, Kannan K, Prakash S, Rajendran A, Philips D
Coronary artery disease (CAD) patients might have concomitant mesenteric artery stenosis (MAS). Identification of risk factors predicting mesenteric artery involvement might guide screening high risk individuals. A dilemma of intervention in radiologically severe MAS exists. This prospective study included CAD patients undergoing a coronary angiogram. A concomitant mesenteric angiogram was performed to diagnose MAS. Clinically relevant MAS (CR-MAS) was defined as I) presence of classical mesenteric angina with any degree of MAS or ii) severe stenosis (> 70%) involving two or more vessels. Risk factors for CR-MAS were studied and followed up prospectively. One hundred and three patients were included in the study. Left anterior descending artery was the most common involved coronary artery and was affected in 73% (n = 76). Mesenteric angiogram revealed 42.7% (n = 44) to have MAS. CR-MAS was present in 21 patients (20.4%). Involvement of celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery and inferior mesenteric artery was 22, 39 and 15 respectively. Multivariate analysis showed mesenteric angina (p < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01) and peripheral artery disease (p < 0.01) to be independent predictors of CR-MAS. At a median follow-up of 36 months (range 29-48 months), there was no acute mesenteric ischemia. In patients with CR-MAS, 16 (76.2%) had symptomatic improvement and 5 (23.8%) had stable symptoms. Three patients underwent angioplasty of superior mesenteric artery for persistent symptoms. Chronic CAD patients had a high prevalence of MAS. Mesenteric angina, diabetes mellitus and peripheral artery disease are independent predictors of CR-MAS. Intervention for MAS should be dictated by symptoms and not radiological severity. Lifestyle modification and medication for atherosclerotic ischemic heart disease probably prevents acute mesenteric ischemia in CAD patients.