Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2018;7(3):148-155. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2018.01055)
The impact of the intestinal microbiome on bone health.
Zhang J, Lu YQ, Wang YZ, Ren XZ, Han JX
Intestinal microbial flora, known as the second gene pool of the human body, play an important role in immune function, nutrient uptake, and various activities of host cells, as well as in human disease. Intestinal microorganisms are involved in a variety of mechanisms that affect bone health. Gut microbes are closely related to genetic variation, and gene regulation plays an important part in the development of bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis. Intestinal microorganisms can disrupt the balance between bone formation and resorption by indirectly stimulating or inhibiting osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, intestinal microorganisms affect bone metabolism by regulating growth factors or altering bone immune status and can also alter the metabolism of serotonin, cortisol, and sex hormones, thereby affecting bone mass in mice. Moreover, probiotics, antibiotics, and diet can change the composition of the intestinal microbial flora, thus affecting bone health and also potentially helping to treat bone disease. Studying the relationship between intestinal flora and osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may provide a basis for preventing and treating bone diseases. This paper reviews recent advances in the study of the relationship between intestinal microflora and bone disease.