Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2016;5(4):269-274. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2016.01064)
Targeted sequencing approach to identify genetic mutations in Nasu-Hakola disease.
Satoh J, Yanaizu M, Tosaki Y, Sakai K, Kino Y
Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sclerosing leukoencephalopathy and multifocal bone cysts, caused by a loss-of-function mutation of either TYROBP (DAP12) or TREM2. TREM2 and DAP12 constitute a receptor/adaptor signaling complex expressed exclusively on osteoclasts, dendritic cells, macrophages, and microglia. Premortem molecular diagnosis of NHD requires genetic analysis of both TYROBP and TREM2, in which 20 distinct NHD-causing mutations have been reported. Due to genetic heterogeneity, it is often difficult to identify the exact mutation responsible for NHD. Recently, the revolution of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has greatly advanced the field of genome research. A targeted sequencing approach allows us to investigate a selected set of disease-causing genes and mutations in a number of samples within several days. By targeted sequencing using the TruSight One Sequencing Panel, we resequenced genetic mutations of seven NHD cases with known molecular diagnosis and two control subjects. We identified homozygous variants of TYROBP or TREM2 in all NHD cases, composed of a frameshift mutation of c.141delG in exon 3 of TYROBP in four cases, a missense mutation of c.2T>C in exon 1 of TYROBP in two cases, or a splicing mutation of c.482+2T>C in intron 3 of TREM2 in one case. The results of targeted resequencing corresponded to those of Sanger sequencing. In contrast, causative variants were not detected in control subjects. These results indicate that targeted sequencing is a useful approach to precisely identify genetic mutations responsible for NHD in a comprehensive manner.