Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2016;5(3):185-191. (DOI: 10.5582/irdr.2016.01024)
Development of chidamide for peripheral T-cell lymphoma, the first orphan drug approved in China.
Lu XP, Ning ZQ, Li ZB, Cao HX, Wang XH
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a set of rare and highly heterogeneous group of mature T- and NK-cell neoplasms associated with poor outcomes and lack of standard and effective therapies. The total number of newly diagnosed cases of PTCL yearly in China is estimated about 50,000. Chidamide (CS055) is a novel and orally active benzamide class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that selectively inhibits activity of HDAC1, 2, 3 and 10, the enzymes that are involved and play an important role in tumor initiation and development in both tumor cells and their surrounding micro-environment. Functioning as a genuine epigenetic modulator, chidamide induces growth arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells and enhances cellular antitumor immunity. Based on the overall results from preclinical and phase I clinical studies, exploratory and pivotal phase II trials of chidamide for relapsed or refractory PTCL were conducted from March 2009 to May 2012, and the results led to CFDA approval of chidamide for the indication in December 2014, being the first approved orphan drug according to the research & development approach of orphan drugs in China, as well as the first orally active drug for PTCL in China and worldwide.